Three Canadian Airplanes stamps.
*** CANADAIR CL-215 *** CURTISS HS-2L *** DE HAVILLAND CANADA BEAVER ***
CANADAIR CL-215 HISTORY:
The CL-215 was designed as a specialist firebomber, particularly suited to Canada and other heavily forested regions.
The resulting amphibious aircraft is powered by two Pratt & Whitney R-2800 radials, and is capable of scooping up 5455 litres (1200Imp gal/1440US gal) of water in 12 seconds from a water source. The CL-215 first flew on October 23 1967, and first delivery was to the French civil protection agency in June 1969. Production of batches of CL-215s continued through to 1990.
Originally the subsequent CL-215T was to be a simple turboprop powered development of the CL-215, and Canadair converted two aircraft in 1989 to act as development aircraft. The first of these flew on June 8 that year. Retrofit kits for CL-215s to the new standard are offered, but Canadair elected not to build new CL-215Ts, and instead developed the CL-415.
The primary improvement added to the CL-415 over the CL-215T is an EFIS avionics suite, while other improvements, some of which first appeared on the CL-215T, include winglets and finlets, higher weights and an increased capacity firebombing system. Like the CL-215 its principle mission is that of a firebomber, but various special mission (including SAR and maritime patrol) and transport configurations are available.
In the First World War, the HS family of flying boats developed by Curtiss for the USN proved to be highly successful. Following the marriage of the HS-1 hull design and the popular Liberty engine, the HS-1 was ordered into large scale production as the US Navy's standard coastal patrol flying boat.
The design was then further modified with an additional 6 foot panel in the centre-wing section increasing the span from 62 to 74 foot. This increase allowed for the carriage of a heavier bomb load and the modification resulted in a new designation of HS-2L. In 1918 in order to combat the growing submarine menace off Canada's east coast, the Royal Navy requested that two air bases be constructed. The Royal Canadian Naval Air Service thus came into being.
The HS-1L began to enter service early in 1918, flying anti-submarine patrols from a number of Naval Air Stations on the Eastern Seaboard of the United States, and from the Panama Canal Zone. Two HS-1Ls operating from Chatham, Massachusetts made the only confirmed aircraft attack on a German U-boat in American waters on July 21, 1918, but this was unsuccessful, with bombs failing to explode and the submarine escaping.
From August 1918, in order to compensate for Canada's lack of patrol aircraft, US Navy HSs operated from two bases in Nova Scotia. Twelve HS-2Ls were donated to Canada at the end of the war.
Large numbers of HS boats were also used by US Navy forces in France, with deliveries starting on May 24, 1918, flying their first patrols on June 13. About 160 HS-1Ls and -2Ls were deployed to France. Following the Armistice, the HS boats based in Europe were scrapped apart from four aircraft based in the Azores, which were acquired by Portugal, while US Naval Air Service shrank considerably, with many Naval Air Stations closing, resulting in considerable numbers of HS boats becoming surplus to requirements and available for sale at $200 to $500 without engines. HS-2Ls continued in use by the US Navy as a patrol aircraft and a trainer until 1928.
Following the Armistice, eleven HSs passed into US Coast Guard service, remaining in service until 1926. As many as 83 HS boats were used by the United States Army Air Service for communications and survey purposes from overseas bases, although they were not given US Army serial numbers. Surplus HSs were also widely exported. Amongst Military users was Brazil, who received six aircraft in 1918. Two HS-2Ls were used in attempt to bomb the rebel held Forte de Copacabana during the 1922 Tenente revolt. Many were used in Canada as the first bush plane. One survives in the Canada Aviation Museum in Ottawa after being rescued from a Quebec lake.
DE HAVILLAND CANADA BEAVER HISTORY:
The Beaver was designed and built in response to the demands of Canadian bush operators. First all-metal bush plane designed and built in Canada, high-lift wing, and flap configuration, the Beaver was a robust aircraft with excellent short take-off-and-landing capability even with heavy loads.
In addition to its success in Canada, the Beaver found acceptance in as many as 60 other countries all over the world. Although not ordered by the RCAF, some 980 served with distinction in the US Army and US Air Force. About 1600 were made.The Beaver was such a success that more were built than any other aircraft designed and manufactured in Canada. In 1951 it won both the US Air Force and US Army competitions for a utility aircraft. Many were used in Korea, where it was known as the “general’s jeep”.
The de Havilland Canada DHC-2 Beaver is a single-engined, high-wing, propeller-driven, STOL aircraft developed by de Havilland Canada, primarily known as a bush plane. It is used for cargo and passenger hauling, aerial application (crop dusting and aerial topdressing), and has been widely adopted by armed forces as a utility aircraft. The United States Army purchased several hundred; nine DHC-2s are still in service with the U.S. Air Force Auxiliary (Civil Air Patrol) for search and rescue.
A Royal New Zealand Air Force Beaver supported Sir Edmund Hillary's expedition to the South Pole. Over 1,600 Beavers were produced until 1967 when the original line shut down. Due to its success, the Royal Canadian Mint commemorated the Beaver on a special edition Canadian quarter in November 1999.